In addition to catalytic domains, many cellulolytic enzymes contain domains not involved in catalysis, but participating in substrate binding, multi-enzyme complex formation, or possibly attachment to the cell surface. Presumably, these domains assist in the degradation of crystalline cellulose by preventing the enzymes from being washed off from the surface of the substrate, by focusing hydrolysis on restricted areas in which the substrate is synergistically destabilized by multiple cutting events, and by facilitating recovery of the soluble degradation products by the cellulolytic organism.
In most cellulolytic organisms, cellulase synthesis is repressed in the presence of easily metabolized, soluble carbon sources and induced in the presence of cellulose. Induction of cellulases appears to be effected by soluble products generated from cellulose by cellulolytic enzymes synthesized constitutively at a low level. These products are presumably converted into true inducers by transglycosylation reactions.
Lignin biochemistry: Biosynthesis and biodegradation
From a perspective at the molecular level, there is strong interaction by hydrogen bonds between adjacent chains in the cellulose sheet, as well as weaker hydrophobic interactions between cellulose sheets. Besides, cellulose in plant biomass is buried in a lignin carbohydrates complex LCC , which makes degradation and conversion of cellulose difficult. Lignocellulosic biomass can also be directly decomposed and converted to fuels and chemicals using cellulolytic microorganisms.
Articles about thermo-chemical approaches will not be considered unless they include a large portion of biological elements.
Biosynthesis and biodegradation of cellulose
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Part one biosynthesis covers the occurrence and functions of cellulose in higher plants and algae, fungi and protists, bacteria and blue-green algae, and certain animals Richmond, Ch.
Biosynthesis And Biodegradation Of Cellulose
The relationship between ceUulosc and other cell-waU components, such as formation and includes a chapter on characterization. In his last section two chapters , the author briefly discusses microfiltration and applications for affinity microfiltration membranes. The book is wctl produced and illustrated and I have only the minor criticistn that some of the reaction schemes are better than othcn.
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Prospective purchasers should also be aware that the bulk ofthc rcfcrenccs predate although there are a reasonable number for the late s I found only two for and one for CJ in my brief examination of the text. As an introduction to the techniques described this monograph is a good place to start, it will be less uscftrl to those already familiar with affinity techniques. Hniglcr Ch. Other chapters include the implications of the physical structure e.
Read and Dcbncr Ch. The procedures used co extract and purify the 1,3P-glucan synthascs, and co idcntie the polyprptidc components of such systcnls arc addrcswd in Chapter 10 Wasscnnan ct ,;I.
Valla Ch. Wcinxr Ch. Id , as is a comparison of mathematical lnodels of the hydrolytic process. It appears chat dinosaurs were not oniy the largest but also the nlost succcssttil and long-lived of vertrbracr hcrbivorcs on earth Troycr, Ch.