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Location-Based Services

Description This book provides for the first time a general overview of research activities related to location and map-based services. Problem 3: Visualization of Personalized Information In utopian the user gets information about the POIs the service calculates for the tour.

:عنوان Location Based Services and TeleCartography II: From Sensor Fusion to Context Models |اف اف

This means that the user only gets information about locations she is interested in for the current tour. Such information about short-term interests is not visualized automatically, but through direct interaction with the context menu of the service. The user has no facility to determine and set personal long-term interests, e. Utopian provides landmark-based navigation instructions using point landmarks at decision points. Same facade by day and night. Illumination at night increases visual attraction. Whereas some facades have low visual attraction during daytime, their visual attraction and saliency increases when illuminated at night Figure 2.

Utopian does not support this functionality of switching landmarks depending on the time of day. The ability of services to use context information allows for the adaptation of the available information in order to generate a benefit for the user. Several definitions for mobile computing regard context as the changing execution environment, which is divided into computing e. An entity is a person, place, or object that is considered relevant to the interaction between a user and an application, including the user and applications themselves.

First, if a piece of information can be used to characterize the situation of the user or task, then this information is context. Location and time are examples for useful information within the model. Second, the definition allows for context to be either explicitly or implicitly indicated by the user.

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For example, the location of nearby objects can be detected implicitly by the service or explicitly through user input. The main aspects in the above definition are identity user , activity interaction with service and environment , location, and time as temporal constraints. There are mechanisms available to fit the services to the current situation and make them flexible, called adaptation. Adaptation is therefore the answer to a changing context Reichenbacher There are two ways of achieving knowledge sharing between a service and its user — making the service adaptive or adaptable Fischer , Oppermann Table 2.

All relevant factors need to be formally represented within the service. Table 2. Characteristics of adaptive and adaptable services, modified from Fischer Adaptive Adaptable user changes functionality of the service Strengths dynamic adaptation by the service to current task and user little or no effort by the user Weaknesses loss of control user must do substantial work Definition user is in control The visualization of geoinformation and its interactive use on mobile devices is adapted to either one or all components of the actual context user, location, information, etc.

LBS and TeleCartography 2009

Gartner However, the visualization does not need to adapt to all factors at once. Zipf argues that when adapting maps for mobile services it is insufficient to focus only on technical parameters such as device characteristics, but maps have to be dynamically generated according to a wider range of variables, including user preferences, task, and location. To achieve this goal the service needs to exploit a user model and context knowledge.

Different tasks have different requirements regarding map design. Incorporating adaptation within the visualization process solves several usability problems encountered in the mobile environment.

The adaptation model is designed in an abstract way to be used for different tasks, constraints, and requirements in the domain of mobile LBS. Reduction of Cognitive Load Cognitive load can be understood as the amount of work needed to acquire and use information. In the case of mobile pedestrian navigation services this corresponds to the visualized information and navigation instructions displayed on the screen. These techniques concentrate on the reduction of the visualized information. Therefore, the challenge in the reduction of cognitive load is to find the appropriate amount of information, i.

Here, this LoD will be achieved through a taskdriven adaptation model. The model and its components will be filled with features required for the specific task. A Formal Model for Mobile Map Adaptation 19 Reduction of User Interaction with the Device The usability and usefulness of mobile map services is highly dependent on the appropriate graphical user interface GUI design including the visualization of spatial and non-spatial information.

Further constraints are imposed through the limited processing power and low resolution of pointing devices. Methods and techniques for GUI design for mobile devices have been proposed by Cartwright et al. Here, we focus on minimizing the use of pointing devices to achieve a reduction of user interaction. These models are classified into dynamic and static elements Figure 2. The ContextModel represents the dynamic elements of the model, because in most cases the Situation S of using a mobile device implies that the surrounding context changes e.

Their values change each time a Situation changes. In contrast to the TaskModel, both the ContextModel and the UserModel consist of different categories, and each category consists of an arbitrary number of features e. The categories serve as structural units to classify the features of the model. The values of these features serve as input parameters for the different types of operations, which can be either adaptive or adaptable, and strongly depend on the specific task.

With regard to the context definition given in Section 2.

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The Situation S in Figure 2. The classification into different categories is particularly useful when using a large number of required features for the task. This information is represented by the UserFeatures uf1, These features represent all characteristics, which fall under the identity—category of the context definition Section 2. The model should capture different types of information, such as user needs, preferences, and interests. The different features representing the UserModel are static elements, because it is unlikely that they change during the navigation process e.

This is a complex approach based on artificial intelligence and ubiquitous computing. The task mainly affects the determination of adaptive and adaptable operations based on the ContextFeatures and UserFeatures. To clarify the relationship between task and operations an appropriate approach is needed. The structure of the model in Figure 2.

It is a hierarchical framework where the activity builds the root element supplemented by goals, subgoals, and actions to accomplish the different activities.