Campbell, J. Collins, J. David, A. Driver, G. Elliger, K.
Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls
Fensham, F. Field, F.
Gelston, A. Kautzsch ed. Cowley, Clarendon Press, Oxford. Goodman, M. Collins eds. Greenstein, E. Parker ed.
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Orphans in the Dead Sea Scrolls
Tov eds. Jastrow, M. Jokiranta, J. Kappler, W. Keck, L. King, P. Klawans, J. Kramer, S. Lawrie, D. Levy, J. Lim, T. Lohse, E. Lux, R. Lux eds. Milik, J.
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Smith, R. Sperber, A. Stegemann, H. Steinberg, N. Richards eds. Petersen , pp. Talmon, S. Calendar conformity and calendar controversy in ancient Judaism: The case of the "Community of the renewed covenant"', in J. Tov, E. Ulrich, E. Sanders eds. VanderKam, J. Volk, K. Notizen aus Babylonien und Assyrien', in A. Waltke, B. Watson, W. Weber, R. Weinfeld, M. Chazon et al. Yildiz, F. Ziegler, J. Correspondence : Gideon R. Received: 24 Nov.
Jastrow ; Levy ; Sigismund n. This usage of the word in the Hebrew Bible and rabbinic literature is important for an understanding of its semantic potential in early Jewish writings: 'While no one today would deny a mother's loss or absence is a matter of serious concern, the Hebrew points to the fact that in OT Judaism greater importance was attached to fatherlessness than motherlessness.
Therefore, being an orphan was in almost all cases tantamount to being fatherless. This held true for the intertestamental and rabbinic eras as well, and thus certainly for the time of Jesus and the early Palestinian Christians' Sigismund Heimpel According to the prologue of the laws of Ur-Namma e. See also similar claims made by the rulers of Lagash, Uruinimgina e. Concerning the Sumerian and Akkadian words translated as 'orphans' and more passages from Mesopotamian sources that deal with such children, see Volk Amongst Ugaritic literature, the mention of orphans in the stories of Aqhat and Kirta is noteworthy.
Before Kothar wa-Khasis brings him a bow as a gift, Aqhat's father, Daniel, sits by the gateway and 'Takes care of the case of the widow, Defends the need of the orphan': ydn dn. In the Middle Kingdom Egyptian tale of the Eloquent Peasant , the high steward, Rensi, is responsible for upholding Ma'at by establishing justice for the wronged peasant. Berlin , ; cf.
David; Parkinson According to Spell of the Book of the Dead , the deceased declares his innocence before the tribunal of 42 gods in the Hall of Two Truths by claiming, inter alia , that 'I have not deprived the orphan of his assets' cf. David Finally, the important sarcophagus inscription of Eshmunazar II, dating to the Achaemenid period, refers twice to the king of Sidon as 'an orphan, son of a widow' ytm bn 'lmt in the context of a royal genealogy and a notice that he died before his time cf.
KAI 14, 3 and Exod , 23; Deut ; ; , 14; , ; , 13; ; Isa , 23; ; ; Jer ; ; ; ; Ezek ; Hos ; Zech ; Mal ; Pss , 18; ; ; ; , 12; ; Job ; ; , 9; ; , 21; Prov ; Lam For a discussion of terminological issues in connection with such writings, see Ulrich See also Lim and VanderKam on questions relating to the Dead Sea scrolls and authoritative scriptures. The designation is not meant to convey the idea that the groups were restricted to the settlement at Qumran, but it is assumed that this location played some important role in the wider movement.
This movement can justifiably be referred to as 'sectarian'. Collins defines 'sect' in the following terms: 'A sect is first of all a voluntary association, and as such presupposes a deliberate choice and a high level of intentionality on the part of its members.