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A series of Schmidt Hammer tests N-type were carried out in the field during a site visit to the Bahce—Nurdagi tunnel area. The mean values obtained in the field for meta-sandstone are Basic parameters affecting tool consumption of a TBM are the abrasivity, strength and geological discontinuities of the formation to be excavated. The sandstone is composed mainly of quartz with minor feldspar, opaque and rock fragments. The grains are cemented by chlorite. A thin chlorite cement holds the grains together. The sandstone can be classified as quartz arenite.

The mudstone siltstone consists of angular quartz grains embedded in a voluminous matrix of sericitic muscovite, opaque, chlorite, feldspar and quartz. It shows a distinct cleavage defined by the parallel orientation of the mica grains. Two block samples of meta-sandstone and meta-mudstone were subjected to full-scale laboratory rock cutting experiments [3].

A constant cross-section disc cutter with a tip width of 1. A testing program with a constant cutter line spacing of 80 mm including relieved adjacent cutters and unrelieved single cutter cutting patterns was set, and depth of cut was varied 3, 5, 7 mm. The sample surface was cut several times to condition the surface similar to the real case of a tunnel face. Normal, rolling and side forces were recorded, muck samples were collected and their weights were measured during each cut. Force values were reduced by a custom-made macro program.

The meta-mudstone sample was cut parallel to the bedding planes. Based on the experimental results, optimum line spacing to penetration ratio was determined for the TBM to be used in the tunnel.

TBM Excavation in Difficult Ground Conditions: Case Studies from Turkey

In optimum conditions, the energy spent to excavate a unit volume of rock is minimal. Cutter spacing is a constant value of a TBM cutterhead, which dictates that for a given rock formation the predetermined cutting depth in the laboratory will determine the optimum thrust values of the excavating machine. The cutting test results are discussed in [3] and summarized in Table 3.

  • Unknown error!
  • Melvil Decimal System: 624.193!
  • Psychophysical Judgment and Measurement.
  • TBM Excavation in Difficult Ground Conditions. Case Studies from Turkey?
  • Development and Application of Tunnel Boring Machines in the Last 30 Years.

The design of the Bahce—Nurdag Single Shield TBM was optimized for variable geology and for the results obtained by laboratory testing. The system allowed for pea gravel injection and grouting through the segments for backfill. In the case of a large inrush of water or mud, the uniquely designed Single Shield TBM can engage an emergency sealing system consisting of muck chute closure doors Fig. In this presentation, Robbins President Lok Home will analyze recent and ongoing tunneling projects in difficult ground conditions where TBMs have proven their worth, from Turkey to the U.

At these projects TBMs have performed well in incredibly difficult conditions—from volcanic rock to more than a mile of cover—alongside drill and blast operations that proceeded more slowly or failed altogether. A critical analysis of the benefits and risks of each method will be examined with an eye towards case studies that provide real-world results. Submit your event to the event calendar.

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