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Log out of Readcube. Click on an option below to access. Log out of ReadCube. The paper describes recent developments in the study of intonation as they contribute to the goal of an intonational typology. The practical demand for speech technology applications has further advanced research in the field. The paper discusses why no typology of intonation exists as yet and shows that typologically relevant parameters are being filtered out and delineated by work currently being carried out. Volume 4 , Issue 9. The full text of this article hosted at iucr.

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Institutional Login. Log in to Wiley Online Library. Declination can be observed. This final rise occurs on the last stressed syllable. Russian Svetozarova has observed that Russian intonation adds a lot of information to sentences. Part of the information is revealed by divergences from the neutral sentence stress, which is rule-based, though barely investigated.

Some of these divergences can be observed in separating the prosodic subdivisions, which play such a great role in Russian syntax.

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Bulgarian Following the Russian tradition, they call prosodic units syntagma and investigate average syntagma length. The authors divide two different accents, the focal one, which they call semantic accent, and the dichotomy of continuation vs. Among syntagmata, only a quarter contain more than one semantic accents, in that case there are normally two.

Accents vary in degree, though there is no difference in quality, as to different kinds of information that could be revealed by the accents. The most remarkable feature in the article is the observation that there are certain words that attract the accent to a neighbouring word, either preceding or following. One of those is the negation particle, which is almost invariably followed by an accent.

Greek Like Danish, Greek knows no neutral intonation; intonation has an semantic impact. Botinis emphasizes on the stress pattern of Greek; stress patterns coin the prosodic manifestation of an utterance. WH-questions show no difference in pattern to declarative utterances. The "famous" continuative intonation , e.

So the basic and autonomous units of description are turn-units and their subdivisions, the STU sub-turn-units. Finnish In Finnish, dialects play a vivid role, yet they are influenced by the standard. Compounds may contain morpheme boundaries within them, marked by intonational means and laryngealisation. Creaky voice can be found as final marker of utterances as well, as the end point of a declination.

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Information structure is part of the intonation encoding, Iivonen differentiates between accent for rheme AR , accent for contrast AC , and accent for emphasis AE ; the latter extends to more than one syllable. Striking is the feature of delayed F0 peak, which has a function of hinting, assertion plus inherent doubt; it means that the intonation peak is about ms delayed, yielding the second syllable or the end of a long vowel as peak.

Hungarian Fonagy bounds traditional intonation research to the modern one. He cites the 5 tone levels introduced by Varga for Hungarian and connects them to empirical investigation. He uses whispering for control. Whereas simple focalisation is recognizable in whispered speech, thus outside the domain of intonation, focalisation with implication i. Attitudes are "lexicalized" and follow special patterns, for which he gives one example implication of hurry , emotions are expressed by "expiratory, laryngeal, and articulatory strategies" which are partly paralinguistic.

Western Arabic Morocco Surprisingly, Benkirane has the very unusual hypothesis that releasing of plosives leads to the conclusion that there are syllable-initial. A final schwa is said to be optionally added to any otherwise defined as final consonant. In terms of duration, closed syllables are as long as two open ones of course, in Benkiranes point of view, closed syllables are two open ones, too.

The theory allows to say that both word and sentence stress are on the penultimate syllable. Besides, Moroccan Arabic shows all the characteristics that have been so common while reading the volume: focalisation pitch peak, focalised WH-words, intonational theme-rheme-marking, splitting up of longer utterances.

As a footnote, there is a focalisation particle in Moroccan Arabic, too. Japanese The study of Japanese intonation faces an empirical problem: As a pitch-accent language Cruttenden its word stress interferes with the physical appearance of intonation, rather than "working together", as in the "intonation languages" Cruttenden The results, though, do not differ too much from those of languages discussed in the earlier chapters.

Questions are marked by rising intonation on the final element ka, making the latter redundant. By examining one-word-utterances, he shows a range of meaning changes imposed to segmentally the same utterance by different pitch levels and contours. There are several constraints stemming from the word accents, though, that point to the fact that pitch serves for two purposes in Japanese. Thai Although it is a tone language, Thai has stress and information which is encoded in intonation. Along with the five lexical tones of Thai, five different pitch behaviours occur for each of the presented intonation patterns.

Some of the patterns cause tones to become less salient. Intensity proved to be a cue in the physical recognition of tone or intonation, especially for the low ones and particularly in whispering. Luksaneeyanawin is the only one who asks the question what stylised intonation is good for; his answer is summarized as "predictability". The basic intonation group and focalisation pattern applies equally to Thai as to non-tone languages. In comparison to statements, other forms of intonation, which are due to semantic constrasts or to attitudes, are accompanied by a narrower pitch range, except "Tune 4" which widens pitch range , conveying "emphatic, agreeable, interested, or believing attitudes".

Intonation Phonology

Vietnamese Vietnamese has a wide range of "pragmatic" particles, good for expressing the same as intonation normally does. Yet intonation is used the same way as in other languages. The results concerning the behaviour of tones are very detailed, in an impressionistic attempt to summarize: Different tones behave differently in different environments. They are somehow "attracted" by the intonation movement.

Register tones are leveled, low tones widen their range, high tones are more strongly marked in interrogatives. Yet intonation contours seem to be a bit more "cautiously used" in Vietnamese than in other languages, including Thai: In questions, e. Beijing Chinese Chinese is on its way towards a foot structure, partly due to the development of the lexicon.

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Accent is normally marked by relatively higher pitch, but with the third falling-rising tone, it is marked by lower pitch. Kratochvil states that for describing tone, pitch, duration, and amplitude must be taken into consideration. The perception of Chinese tone needs 50 to msec. Slower speech allows more sticking to the intonation pattern.

Focusing enlarges the channel.

Intonation in the Grammar of English; M.A.K. Halliday; William Greaves - Equinox Publishing

As they bear no tone, Intonation carriers final sentence particles allow to sort of "save" the whole intonational information or protect the tones before. Nearly all of the authors describe stylised patterns for the language in question. Dialectal variation varies across the languages.